Alignment of Kosta devatas in a late Pallava Vishnu shrine – Thiruvidanthai

It was a chance trip to try and fill an ” empty” evening in an otherwise crowded calender that landed us in Thiruvidanthai. It was peak holiday season and we were surprised to see the rather light traffic on the scenic ECR – though a few overzealous drivers made a mockery of the 40 km/hr speed limit boards and there was no sign of any enforcement let alone for some divine ones – in a few shattered glass sherds every 200 mtrs !! A leisurely stroll of 45 min led us to the now familiar stretch of casuraina groves that lead straight to the famed beaches of the ECR ( some had acquired some really fancy names plus notorious media coverage as well!) told us to slow down and look for the right turn into the temple town – made famous by the Super Star ( much before he had catapulted the Temple town of Tiruvanamalai into glitzy heights !).

The temple came up immediately and we were surprised to find it desereted. Not even a Maxicab, no Mahindra van , no Tempo’s or even an SUV. It must have been a great relief to the flower vendors to see us drive up – you could actually see her eyes light up on seeing me get off alone ( my better half being away), thinking that she could surely sell me two garlands – why two?? Read on to learn more. Better than to try and explain to her that i was here to see just the sculptures of this beautiful Pallava period, i just shook my head and walked on. A iconographically poor later Nayaka mandapa and entrance Gopura led us down a dimly lit main shrine. My eyes lit up on seeing the main deity albeit at quite a distance – its easy to make out the sheer Pallava metrics and an amazing Varaha reminded of our sheer penance to see the Adivarahar in Mallai. Even before the priests started their mantras, came the educative – no photography caution and if needed buy the copy of the painting outside. I am sure you can google it anway. !! He is ofcourse made of Sudhai ( not stone) and 100% Pallava period ( 8th C CE).

We, having feasted enough on his beauty it was time for the Sthala purana – sure to keep the coffers ringing by sending droves of unmarried hopefuls to this sanctum. Friends have sworn by his power and the boys n girls keen to keep their single status refusing to even step into the village’s boundary even ! such was his prowess, that we had a few of the applicants finally arrive – each were given strict instructions on what to do with the garland – you got to go around the temple wearing one and keep the other vacant and God will do the rest – legend has it that in this very place to please a devotee rishi he married each of his 365 daughters – for every day of the year – so he is called Nithya Kalnayana perumal. So we had a 25 odd boy and a few 20 odd girls do the rigmarole of the dual garland ritual !

So much for all the loose talk, back to basics – it is always rare to a see a Pallava Vaishnavite shrine and was hoping to seek some clues on the arrangement of the Koshta devatas – and praying no modern intrusions at that. With great trepidation steeped out for the first Kosta – not expecting to see – who else but the Elephant trunked one.

He did not look modern at all, the slightly elongated trunk and the attributes were stately – yet clearly of a later style than the early Ganesha’s found in the shore temple or even in the Kanchi Kailasanatha.

Need to find a typical early Pallava Kosta Ganesha sculpture to compare as comparing with the already debated Vallam Ganesha would be difficult to yield clear answers.

What period is this deity from and did it find its place in the original scheme of things? References in texts are vague with Vakratunda being referred with placement to the left of the door guardians position for varaha shrines. One thing is for sure – the huge Nama on his forehead and naming him as Tumbikkai Alwar did happen quite a while later but we will visit the rest of the Kosta sculptures to attempt to see if we can fix the date before placing more of our arguments.

As we moved on our ambulatory path – the next Kosta was occupied by Sathyan. This is where it gets interesting, completely new placement of Kosta figures – with forms of vishnu occupying the niches and my pulse raced on seeing the prayoga Chakra and classic pallava lines in the sculpture.

The next niche was occupied by Achyutan. There seem to be some very subtle differences in the styling and ornamentation with the major one being the chakra turned to the side and no longer in prayoga mode !

The next niche we found Aniruddan and back to classic prayoga chakra !

The last niche would usually be Vishnu Durgai and here we have Vaishnavi – unfortunately did not have the necessary permissions to check more – especially the feet / where bull head there or not. But once again clear depiction of Prayoga chakra is found.

So it is very clear that it is most likely that the Kosta sculptures are Pallava and could be later additions ( when the stone work came around the main sanctum) – but is definitely not post 10 th C CE – iconographically they cannot be later than say 900 – 920 CE. There are two kostas on each side and one in the back –

Ganesha , Sathyan
Aniruddhan, Vaishnavi.

So it is quite likely that in the Pallava period or in the interim phase between the Pallava Chola transition – in this particular temple Ganesha was included as one of the Kosta devatas – it is covered in Vaishnava iconography and hence should have been left as such. That later day trials and tribulations have forced him to sport an “acceptable” name and “signs” to again acceptance or maintain his place in the scheme of things is something that mature minds have to work on !!

8 thoughts on “Alignment of Kosta devatas in a late Pallava Vishnu shrine – Thiruvidanthai

  1. I am curious on Sathyan and Achutan. Why are they not Vrisnis like Anirudha. The format that is used in Vaikunda Perumal.

  2. திருவிடந்தை பெயர் எவ்வாறு வந்தது தெரியுமா.. திருமங்கை ஆழ்வார் வந்து தரிசித்த தலம். இது என்ன இட விந்தை என்று ஆச்சரியமாகக் கேட்டார். காரணம் வலது பக்கம் இருக்கவேண்டிய லக்ஷ்மி பெருமாளின் இடபக்கம் இருந்ததால் திருவானவள் இடப்பக்கத்தில் விந்தையாக அமர்ந்திருக்கும் கோலமாக ஆழ்வார் கண்ணுக்குப் படுகிறது.

  3. ’இட எந்தை’ – சரியான உச்சரிப்பு.
    தலப் பெயர் ‘திருவிடவெந்தை’

    ”குலங்கெழு கொல்லி கோமள வல்லிக் கொடியிடை நெடுமழைக் கண்ணி,
    இலங்கெழில் தோளிக் கென்னினைந் திருந்தாய் இடவெந்தை யெந்தை பிரானே”

    என்பது பாசுரம்

  4. i agree with arvind, the later labels in tamil maybe in error, vaishnavi could well be vishnu durgai. And Achutan one of the vrishnis like pradyumna

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